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Vilayanur Subramanian "Rama" Ramachandran is a neurologist best known for his work in the fields of behavioral neurology and psychophysics. He is currently the Director of the Center for Brain and Cognition, Professor in the Psychology Department and Neurosciences Program at the University of California, San Diego, and Adjunct Professor of Biology at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies.
Ramachandran initially obtained an M.D. at Stanley Medical College in Madras, India, and subsequently obtained a Ph.D. from Trinity College at the University of Cambridge. Ramachandran’s early work was on visual perception but he is best known for his experiments in behavioral neurology which, despite their apparent simplicity, have had a profound impact on the way we think about the brain.
Ramachandran has been elected to fellowships at All Souls College, Oxford, and the Royal Institution, London (which also awarded him the Henry Dale Medal). He gave the 2003 BBC Reith Lectures and was conferred the title of Padma Bhushan by the President of India in 2007. He has been called “The Marco Polo of neuroscience” by Richard Dawkins and "the modern Paul Broca" by Eric Kandel. Newsweek magazine named him a member of "The Century Club", one of the "hundred most prominent people to watch" in the 21st century.
Ramachandran has pursued two parallel careers; one in the study of visual perception, using the methods of psychophysics, which permit clear inferences about what someone is seeing, based on what they report, and the other in neurology, and in particular towards a number of neurological syndromes. He is credited with introducing the use of visual feedback as a treatment for phantom limb pain (the mirror box), rehabilitation after stroke, and RSD (complex regional pain syndrome). He is also known for his experiments and speculations (together with Edward Hubbard and David Brang) in the field of synesthesia. More recently his work has focused on the cause of autism.
Ramachandran has published over 180 papers in scientific journals. Twenty of these have appeared in Nature, and others have appeared in Science, Nature Neuroscience, Perception and Vision Research. He is author of the acclaimed book Phantoms in the Brain that has been translated into nine languages and formed the basis for a two part series on BBC Channel 4 TV (UK) and a 1-hour PBS special in the USA. He is the editor of the Encyclopedia of the Human Brain (2002), and is co-author of the bi-monthly "Illusions" column in Scientific American Mind.
Apart from his research on the mind, Ramachandran is also interested in cryptography and ancient languages;
The Indus Valley Code

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