Saturday, October 24, 2009

Indian Languages and their origin

Sindhis are across the border in Pakistan too. There they write in the Perso-Arabic script, while in India the Devanagari is used.

History of Sindhi Language:
Sindhi is actually an offshoot of some of the dialects of the Vedic Aryans. Sindh, on the north west of undivided India, had always been the first to bear the onslaught of the never-ending invaders, and as such absorbed Hindi, Persian, Arabic, Turkish, English and even Portuguese. Sindh is where Persian and Indian cultures blended, for the area was introduced to Islam in 712AD. Thus, very little of Sindhi literature of the earlier period has survived. The Summara and Summa periods are virtually blank except for the few poems of Hamad, Raju and Isack. The heroic ballads of this period set to music by Shah Abdul Karim (1538-1625) are the earliest records of the Sindhi language.

Real flourish of Sindhi poetic talent came during the last stages of the 18th century. Although the time was not appropriate for cultural developments as invaders repeatedly plundered the country during this period. Several works like Shah Abdul Latif's Shah-Jo-Rasalo, the magnum opus of Sindhi literature, were produced.

Shah-Jo-Rasalo describes the life of common man, the sorrows and sufferings of the ill-starred heroes of ancient folklore. Sachal, another eminent, poet closely followed Shah Abdul Karim. He was a Sufi rebel poet who did not adhere to any religion and denounced religious radicals. The poet Saami was a complete contrast to Kari, more pious than poetical, yet possessing a charm of his own. There was an excess of songsters in Sindhi who recited similar ideas and themes in varied tones. The notables among them are Bedil, his son Bekas, and Dalpat. Gul Mohamad introduced Persian forms of poetry replacing the native baits and Kafees. Mirza Kaleech Beg who composed on the same lines contributed a lot to Sindhi literature.

Dayaram Gidumal and Mirza Kaleech were two of the early prose writers. The former was a great scholar and he was famous mainly for his metaphysical writings. The noted lexicographer and essayist Parmanand Mewaram wrote essays that educated and instructed both the young and the old. This peer group also comprised of Bherumal Meherchand, Lalchand Amardinomal and Jethmal Parsram, and Acharya Gidwani, N. R. Malkani and Dr H. M. Gurbuxani. The Partition of India, however, did not put a brake on the literary output of Sindhi. Plays and poetry have continued to develop, but their themes have changed. Music and beauty are no longer favoured, while poverty, filth and moral degradation rule the mind of the poets. A very crude variety of stories, though popular, are now the representatives of the Sindhi literature. Essay writing has witnessed a far greater interest on the side of the writers. Sindhi literature is thus a far more junior member of the family of Indian literature.

Santhali Language
Santali language is mainly spoken by people who live near the areas of Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan in India. It is basically spoken by the tribal people of India. It is estimated that approximately 6 million people speak the Santhali language in the country. There is not a very regular distribution of people who speak the Santhali language. One can find some speakers of this language in states like Jharkhand, Assam, Bihar, Orissa, Tripura and West Bengal. The Santhali language originated from the Austro-Asiatic, related to Ho and Mundari.

The alphabets of the language are known as Ol Chiki, though people are not very well versed in it. The literacy rate in Santali speaking regions is very low, just around 20-30%. The tribe that speaks this language is known as Santhal. One finds the greatest number of Santali speakers in Bihar, Orissa and West Bengal. This language is actually a dialect of the Munda language. The tribe that speaks this language is quite backward as far as the standard of living is concerned. Most of them work in the coal mines or the steel factories in Asansol and Jamshedpur.

These days, though the language is not much in use, some educated Santhals use it to write books and other literary pieces. During the British rule, this language used to be written in the Roman script. But now, it is written in the Devanagari script. Due to its similarities with the Bengali language, many educated Santhali writers prefer writing it in Bengali because of its similarities in the use of phonetics. It is estimated that the Santali language is older than the Aryan languages.

Punjabi is an ancient language, but like Marathi, started its literary career pretty late. The script of Punjabi language is Gurmukhi, based on Devanagri. Punjabi is the state language of Punjab. Punjab is divided into two distinct language areas: Hindki in West Punjab and Punjabi in East Punjab.

This Eastern Punjab dialect developed into a literary language around the beginning of the 17th century whereas Hindki still remains a group of dialects. During medieval times, Punjab repeatedly bore the brunt of Afghan invaders and internal battles, and these warring times were not exactly feasible for any sort of literary or cultural expansion. Punjabi literature as such came into existence only from the end of the 16th century when Punjabi was already in its Middle Period. Gurmukhi script, created from the Nagari script, is claimed by Sikhs as the only proper script for Punjabi. Punjabi was evolving and Guru Nanak, the founder of the Sikh religion, gave a new lease of life to the language although it was still not in its pure form. The fifth Guru, Arjun Dev compiled the Sikh scripture, the Adi Grantha or Grantha Sahib, but this again was not strictly in Punjabi. Guru Govind Singh (1666-1708), the tenth and last Guru, wrote a number of religious works mainly in Old Hindi with the exception of Candi-di-Var which is in Punjabi.

The period between 1600-1850 covers the entire Middle Punjabi literature. Hindu and Sikh writers wrote in Punjabi, but it were Muslims were the most creative in producing rich literature in Punjabi. The best-known Hindu Punjabi scholar and Persian poet of the 17th century was Chandar Bhan of Lahore. In the 17th century Punjabi split up into three scripts - Perso-Arabic, Nagari and Gurmukhi. Abdullah’s (1616-1666) Bara Anva or the ‘the Twelve Topics’ is a thesis on Islam. During this age many Muslim Sufi poets came to the forefront, and their compositions, entirely Punjabi in spirit and content, form an integral part of Punjabi literature. Bullhe Shah (1680-1758) is the greatest Sufi poet whose Kafis or short poems of about six stanzas are very popular. Ali Haidar (1689-1776), one of his contemporaries, wrote a large number Si-harfis or poems of 30 stanzas, each stanza beginning with a letter of the Persian alphabet.

In this century Jasoda Nandan wrote a poem containing 88 stanzas on an episode from the Ramayana. As an offering to Guru Granth, Guru Das wrote 40 Vras or stories in poetry form conveying moral teachings. Ballads based on popular romances form a special work of Punjabi literature. The tragic love story of Heer and Ranjha became the source of many long poems by various writers, but the most extensive and popular was the one rendered by Waris Shah in 1766. Shah is regarded as the greatest poet of Punjabi literature before the start of the modern age.

Poems on historical figures and stories formed the essence of the 18th century, with Hamid’s (1766-1776) tragic 5620-line Jang nama. Love, morality and Sufi mysticism creeped into verses written by poets like Arur, Rai, Isar Das, Kisan Singh Arif, Hidayatullah and Muhammad Buta. After the British took over Punjab, Hindu reform movements like the Arya Samaj and the Sanatan Dharma strengthened the position of Hindi after which Punjabi in the Gurmukhi character was practiced only by the Sikhs.

Study of Punjabi was established in the University of Punjab at Lahore and in colleges as late as 1915. Modern Punjabi literature begins with the works of Bhai Vir Singh and Padmabhushana (1872-1957). One of his extraordinary works in the language is Rana Surat Singh (1905), a long narrative poem in blank verse of 13,000 lines. Puran Singh (1882-1932), another great poet of this century, has been given the title ‘Tagore of Punjab’. Influenced by the Indian bard himself, Singh’s poetry was considerably influenced by English.

Puran Singh’s contemporaries were Kirpa Singh (Lakshmi Devi) and Dhani Ram Chatrik (Himala, Ganga, and Raat). One of the most popular poets of the `modern’ age is Mohan Singh who has been described as occupying ‘the central place in Punjabi letters today’. He brought in a modern outlook in life and everything related to Punjabi. Other noteworthy poets in Punjabi are Pritam Singh Safir and Amrita Pritam. By this time, several other forms of writing also evolved in Punjabi. Nanak Singh was the most famous novelist and short story writer while Gurbakhsh Singh and I C Nanda were eminent dramatists. After Hindi and Urdu, Bengali has played a major role in enriching the language. Tagore has always had an important influence in Punjabi. A few Bengali classics including the works of Sarat Chandra Chatterjee, Bibhuti Bhushan Bandopadhyaya and Tara Shankar Bannerji have been translated into Punjabi, though not directly but through Hindi. English, Hindi and Urdu have always kept Punjabi a little aside from the mainstream languages. Even so, Punjabi is trying to establish itself on its own.

Oriya, Bengali and Assamese all come from the same Eastern Magadhi Apabhramsa and are considered to be sister languages. In the 16th and 17th century Oriya fell under the spell of Sanskrit. However, during the 17th and 18th centuries it followed a new line of approach. Oriya languages traces its origin to the 10th century.

The history of Oriya language is divided into Old Oriya (10th century-1300), Early Middle Oriya (1300-1500), Middle Oriya (1500-1700), Late Middle Oriya (1700-1850) and Modern Oriya (1850 till present day). Oriya literature upto 1500AD mainly covers poems and proses with religion, gods and goddesses as the main theme. The earliest use of prose can be found in the Madala Panji or the Palm-leaf Chronicles of the Jagannatha temple at Puri, which date back to the 12th century. The first great poet of Orissa is the famous Sarala-dasa who wrote the Chandi Purana and the Vilanka Ramayana, both praising the goddess Durga. Rama-bibha, written by Arjuna-dasa, is the first long poem in Oriya language.

The next era is more commonly called the Jagannatha Dasa Period and stretches till the year 1700. The period begins with the writings of Shri Chaitanya whose Vaishnava influence brought in a new evolution in Oriya literature. Balarama Dasa, Jagannatha Dasa, Yasovanta, Ananta and Acyutananda were the main exponents in religious works in Oriya. The composers of this period mainly translated, adapted or imitated Sanskrit literature. A few prominent works of this period include the Usabhilasa of Sisu Sankara Dasa, the Rahasya-manjari of Deva-durlabha Dasa and the Rukmini-bibha of Kartikka Dasa. A new form of novels in verse evolved during the beginning of the 17th century when Ramachandra Pattanayaka wrote Haravali. Other poets like Madhusudana, Bhima, Dhivara, Sadasiva and Sisu Isvara-dasa composed another form called Kavyas or long poems based on themes from Puranas. The language used by them was plain and simple Oriya.

However, from the turn of the 18th century, verbally tricky Oriya became the order of the day. Verbal jugglery, obscenity and eroticism became the trend of the period between 1700-1850, the most notable poet being Upendra Bhanja (1670-1720). Other poets turned up in hordes to imitate him but none could fit into his shoes, with the exceptions of Bhima-Bhoi and Arakshita Dasa. Family chronicles in prose and literature relating religious festivals and rituals also covered a large portion of this period.

The first Oriya printing typeset was cast in 1836 by the Christian missionaries. The actual Oriya script closely resembled Bengali and Assamese scripts but the one adopted for the printed typesets were completely different, leaning more towards the Tamil script.

Three great poets and prose writers, Rai Bahadur Radhanatha Ray (1849-1908), Madhusudana Rao (1853-1912) and Phakiramohana Senapati (1843-1918) settled in Orissa and made Oriya their own. They brought in a modern outlook and spirit into Oriya literature. Around the same time the modern drama took birth in the works of Rama Sankara Ray beginning with Kanci-Kaveri (1880).

20th century writers in Oriya include Nanda-kisora Bal, Gangadhara Mehera, Chintamani Mahanti and Kuntala-Kumari Sabat Utkala-bharati (quite tongue-twisting!), besides Niladri Dasa and Gopabandhu Dasa (1877-1928). The most notable novelists were Umesa Sarakara, Divyasimha Panigrahi, Gopala Praharaja and Kalindi Charana Panigrahi. Sachi Kanta Rauta Ray is the great introducer of the ultra-modern style in modern Oriya poetry. Others who took up this form were Godavarisa Mahapatra, Dr Mayadhara Manasimha, Nityananda Mahapatra and Kunjabihari Dasa. Prabhasa Chandra Satpati is known for his translations of some western classics apart from Udayanatha Shadangi, Sunanda Kara and Surendranatha Dwivedi. Criticism, essays and history also became major lines of writing in the Oriya language. Esteemed writers in this field were Professor Girija Shankar Ray, Pandit Vinayaka Misra, Professor Gauri Kumara Brahma, Jagabandhu Simha and Hare Krushna Mahatab. Oriya literature mirrors the industrious, peaceful and artistic image of the Oriya people who have offered and gifted much to the Indian civilization in the field of art and literature.

Nepali Language
Spoken mainly in Nepal, Bhutan and some north eastern parts of India, Nepali is actually the official language of Nepal. The influence of Nepali language in India is seen in the state of Sikkim, where Nepali has been declared the official language. Also known as Nepalese, the language of Nepal has a rich cultural history. The language is also known as Gorkhali or Gurkhali, which means "language of Nepali Gorkhas". The oldest term to describe this language is "Khaskura", which came from the rice growing Indo-Aryan settlers known as Khas.

It is considered that some 500 years back, the Khas settlers migrated towards the east in the lower valleys of the Gandaki basin. This place was well suited for rice cultivation. Around the year 1700, an army of Gurungs, Magars and other tribesmen came together under Prithvi Narayan. They set out to conquer other petty settlements in the foothills of the Himalayas. The Gorkha replaced the former homeland of the Khas as the military and political headquarters. Thus, the language came to be known as Gorkhali.

Nepali is considered to be the easternmost of the group of Pahari languages (languages spoken in lower Himalayan ranges of northern India). It is spoken in the areas of the Himalayan ranges like Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Sikkim, etc. Nearby countries like Burma and Bhutan are also influenced by this language and it is also spoken there too. The Nepalese language spoken over there is a mixture of Tibeto-Burman languages. This language also resembles Hindi, the official language of India, as it uses many derivations from Sanskrit. Nepali language is written in Devanagari script.

The language of Nepal is quite significant and also has its own collection of literature. During the later half of the 19th century, Sundarananda Bara wrote the Adhyatma Ramayana in Nepali. Another version of Ramayana was written by Bhanubhakta in the Nepali language. A short collection of folk stories, known as Birsikka, was also compiled in the language. In fact, a new version of the Holy Bible was taken out in Nepali. Sanskrit words were translated and this enriched the language to a great extent.

Marathi can be traced back far beyond the 10th century. It descends from Sanskrit through Pali, Maharashtri and Maharashtra - Apabhramsa. A gradual process of change and modification in the spoken language has led to the present Marathi. The origin and growth of Marathi literature is indebted to two important events. The first was the rise of the Jadhava dynasty whose capital was Devgiri. The Jadhava’s adopted Marathi as the court language and patronized Marathi learned men. The second event was the coming of two religious sects known as Mahanubhav Panth and Warkari Panth, which adopted Marathi as the medium for preaching their doctrines of devotion. Writers of the Mahanubhav sect contributed to Marathi prose while the saint-poets of Warkari sect composed Marathi poetry. However, the latter group is regarded as the pioneers and founders of Marathi literature.

Marathi literature first made its appearance in the 10th century AD and can be grouped into two ages: Ancient or Old Marathi literature (1000-1800) and Modern Marathi Literature (1800 onwards). The former consisted mainly of poetry composed in metres and restricted to the poet’s choice of words and rhythms. It was particularly devotional, narrative and pessimistic for old Marathi poets hadn’t been able to develop satire, parody, irony and humor into their poetry.

Old Marathi Literature covers about eight centuries. Its pioneers and founders were Mukundaraj (Vivekasindhu) and Dnyaneshwar (Dnyaneshwari) whose younger contemporary Namdeo (1270-1350) wrote devotional verses in a simple language for the people. Two centuries later came the great saint and greater poet Eknath whose Ekanathi Bhagavata is a literary masterpiece of Marathi literature. Eknath had a simple and attractive style of composing poetry and was the founder of secular poetry in Marathi. Mukteshwar (1574-1645) later developed this style, and his version of the Mahabharata is the best example of a great narrative poem in Marathi. In the history of Marathi literature, Tukaram (1608-1651) has been given a unique stature. A real genius, Tukaram’s poetry came forth from his wonderful inspirations. He was a radical reformer and is called Sant (saint) Tukaram. Terseness, clarity, vigor and earnestness were found in every line of his poetry.

Tukaram’s associate Ramdas’ (1608-1681) Dasabodha is an inspiring and impressive piece in Marathi. 18th century Marathi poetry is well represented by Vaman Pandit (Yathartha Dipika), Raghunath Pandit (Nala Damayanti Swayamvara) and Shridhar Pandit (Pandavpratap, Harivijay and Ramvijay). However, the most versatile and voluminous writer among the poets was Moropanta (1729-1794) whose Mahabharata was the first epic poem in Marathi. The historical section of the old Marathi literature was unique as it contained both prose and poetry. The prose section contained the Bakhars that were written after the foundation of the Maratha kingdom by Shivaji. The poetry section contained the Padavas and the Katavas composed by the Shahirs. The period from 1794 to 1818 is regarded as the closing period of the Old Marathi literature and the beginning of the Modern Marathi literature.

The modern period has been divided into four ages. The first period starts from 1800 to 1885, the second from 1885 to 1920, the third from 1921 to 1945, and finally the last period continues till now. In this period, almost all forms of literature in prose and poetry were developed and even scientific literature was produced. Under the British rule, attempts were made to enrich both the language and literature. The Raja of Tanjore got the first English Book translated to Marathi in 1817. Several more such attempts were made and translation work was encouraged a lot. Chhatre, Bal Shastri Jambhekar, Lokahitavadi and Jotiba Phule wrote on various topics in Marathi. The first Marathi newspaper was started in 1835 and Baba Padamji’s Yamuna Paryatan was the first Marathi novel written on social reform in 1857.

However, this period was a lean one for original poetry and only translations of Sanskrit poems were produced. Establishment of the University of Bombay in 1858 and the starting of the newspaper Kesari in 1880-81 gave a boost to the development of Modern Marathi Literature. Keshavasuta (1866-1905), the first Marathi revolutionary poet, launched Modern Marathi poetry with his first poem.

In this period two groups of poets, Ravikiran Mandal and Kavi Tambi, together encouraged some great poets like Ananta Kanekar (Chandarat), Kavi Anil (Phulwat) and N G Deshpande. Poetry after 1945 explores human life in all its shades. B S Mardhekar set the fashion of this trend for P S Rage, Vinda Karandikar, Vasant Bapat and Shanta Shelke.

Vishnudas Bhave was the pioneer of Marathi drama which was born in 1843. Other great dramatists were B P Kirloskar (Saubhadra), G B Deval (Sharada), R G Gadkari (Ekach Pyala), Mama Varerkar (Apporva Bangal) and P L Deshpande (Amaldar). Marathi stage is still following its rich tradition and is a very popular form of entertainment.

Novels were not far behind, and the first to be published was ‘Madhali Sthiti’ by Hari Narayan Apte (1864-1919). Natha Madhav, CV Vaidya, Prof V M Joshi, V S Khandekar, Sane Guruji, Kusumvati Deshpande, Kamalabai Tilak are the prominent novelists of the Marathi language. The short story and essay forms came into existence in this period through Diwakar Krishna, H N Apte and V S Gurjar. S M Mate, Durga Bhagwat, N S Phadke are well-known essayists in Marathi. Marathi occupies a distinct position in the field of Indian Literature and will continue to do so in future.

Manipuri Language
The official language of the state of Manipur is known as Manipuri. This language is also known by the name of Meitei. The offices and government institutions of Manipur recognize Manipuri as their official language. This language has also influenced nearby states of Assam and Tripura and is also spoken there. It is also spoken in some parts of Bangladesh and Myanmar. Almost all ethnic groups of Manipur speak this language and that has helped greatly in the regional integration.

Meitei is also the medium of education in Manipur. In some universities of India, Manipur is taught as a subject to the post graduate level students also. Manipuri is different from Bishnupriya Manipuri, which is classified as an Indo-Aryan language. As per the earliest written evidence on the history of Manipuri, the language dates back to the 11th century. It had an independent script that was in use until 18th century. This script was derived from the Tibetan group of scripts.

With the arrival of the British rule, the script was modified and came to be known and used as the Bengali script. This script is being used till date. Efforts are being made to restore the original script and renew it. This will give it further recognition and importance among the current generation. In Manipur, more than 60 percent of the people converse in Manipuri and there is an urgent need to revive its original script before it completely fades away from the memories of the people.

Malayalam is one of the Dravidian languages, which dates back to the 10th century. Malayalam is the baby in the Dravidian family. It’s an offshoot of old Tamil and remained in the latter’s shadows for a long time before gaining independent identity in the 10th century. But soon after the young Malayalam stepped out on its own, it met with the biggest bully of all – Sanskrit. Thanks to the endeavors of the Namboodiris, the powerful feudal aristocrats of Kerala, Aryan Sanskrit had almost replaced Malayalam in its own land. The Mani-pravalam or ‘ruby and coral style’ was the baby of such a pileup, a style which meant using as many Sanskrit words as possible. The linguistic result of the two dominions, however, has been a happy one; the orchestral resources of Malayalam have been infinitely enriched.

But while Tamil and Sanskrit took turns in stamping their authority, a third kind of Malayalam evolved and survived – the pure or pucca Malayalam. This was the folk stream of lullabies, wedding songs and dirges, which flowed through the centuries and became the source of Malayalam literature later. It had Christian and Muslim elements too. The Kathakali dance form, which is famous the world over, traces its roots in this folk culture of Kerala.

Malayalam literature takes a lazy and winding route till the end of the 18th century, after which the modern period begins. The Ramacharitam (1300AD) is the oldest Malayalam text. Writings of the first few centuries were in Mani-pravalam or the ‘high style’. This went on until Cherusseri Namboodiri turned his attention to pure Malayalam and wrote Krishna Gatha in early 15th century. This was again followed by a generation of campu compositions, a mixture of prose and verse with a liberal sprinkling of Sanskrit words. The themes were from the great Sanskrit epics and Puranas. As late as the 17th century, the first big Malayali poet, Tunchattu Ramanuja Ezhuttachchan adopted the Sanskrit alphabet in place of Malayalam’s incomplete one. A new literary type arose in the 18th century, the Tullal or dance drama, which again dipped into the Ramayana, Mahabharata and Puranas for themes.

Kotungallur (in North Kerala) and Trivandrum (in South Kerala) became the two hectic centers of literary activity in the second half of the 19th century. Volumes of translations were being written – Valiya Koyil Tampuran’s Shakuntala (1881), Kunnikkuttan Tampuran’s Hamlet and Mahabharata, Vallattol Narayana Menon’s Ramayana (1878) and others. It was a period of original works too, with a flood of essays on historical and literary topics, dramas, novels and poems and literary journals. The first and original novel in Malayalam was T. M. Appu Netunnati’s Kundalata (1887), but more popular was Chantu Menon’s Indulekha (1889). Some of the later novelists were Vennayil Kunniraman Nayanar, Appan Tampuran, V. K. Kunnan Menon, Ambati Narayana Potuval and C. P. Achyuta Menon who grounded the present day Malayalam prose style. Vaikkom Mohammad Bashir is one of the most loved literary figures of Kerala. Some poets of the modern school are Kumaran Ashan, G. Sankara Kurup, K. K. Raja, Channampuzha Krishna Pilla and N. Balamaniyamma.

As the state with the highest literacy rate, Kerala is one of the intellectual centers of the country. Kerala is just the place for literature and litterateurs.

Maithili Language
The Maithili language is spoken in the state of Bihar in India. Considered to be a dialect of both Hindi and Bengali, Maithili achieved an independent language status in India in the year 2003. This could happen only because of a mass movement that called for providing Maithili an official status through its inclusion in the Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution so that it may be used for education, government and other purposes.

In the very inception, Maithili used to be written in the Maithili script, which has some resemblance to the Bengali script and is also known by names like Tirhuta and Mithilakshar. Apart from this, the Maithili language was also written in the Kaithi script. However, it is the Devanagri script that is most commonly used for writing Maithili in the present times. A proposal has been drafted to preserve as well as develop the Maithili script by using it in the digital media by encoding the script in the Unicode standard.

Maithili that is even today it is spoken by approximately 4.5 Crore people in India boasts of a rich literature. If you start tracing the history of Maithili literature, you will find that the most famous literary figure in Maithili was poet Vidyapati. He is responsible for elevating Maithili from the status of people's language to one used for official work in Bihar, by impressing the maharaja of Darbhanga with his poems. Earlier, the state language used to be Sanskrit that distanced commoners from the state and its functions.

Varn Ratnakar by Jyotirishwar is probably the earliest work in Maithili literature dated at about 1224 AD. The medieval period of Maithili was during the Karnat Dynasty and litterateurs like Gangesh, Padmanabh, Chandeshwar, Vireshwar and others were famous during this period. Though poet Vidyapati was a Sanskrit scholar, he wrote many poems on Bhakti and Shringar in the Maithili language.

Infact, this language was also employed by many authors to write on humor and satire. For instance, writers like Dr Hari Mohan Jha took measures to bring about crucial changes in the ancient Mithila Culture. In fact, his renowned work 'Khatar Kaka Ke Tarang' is considered to be like a crown embellishing the modern Maithili literature. After the Maithali language was accepted by India's Sahitya Academy, it has won awards almost every year. Literary works in the Maithili language have also won a number of other awards.

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